Guillermo del Toro’s The Strain and the Importance of Research Pt. 2


The Strain is a trilogy written by Guillermo del Toro and Chuck Hogan. It tells the story of the end of the world as we know it through the spread of a vampire virus. Throughout the novels we follow the CDC medical experts Ephraim Goodweather and Nora Martinez, vampire hunter Abraham Setrakian, professional exterminator Vasiliy Fet, and gang member Augustin “Gus” Elizalde in their fight against The Master, the vampire mastermind behind the outbreak.

The first part of the trilogy, The Strain, comes across as a well-researched novel, where detailed descriptions add extra layers to the narrative. However, as I discussed in a previous post on The Boomerang, when taking a closer look at the information provided by the authors, some of the details are either incorrect or presented in a slanted manner.



In the second part of the trilogy, The Fall, we follow the continued adventures of our group of survivors as they struggle to fight back against the vampires who have taken over the world. As in the case of The Strain, The Fall contains passages based on seemingly thoroughly performed research. However, just as in the case of the trilogy’s part one, some of the statements made in part two crumble when picked apart.

Let’s take a closer look at The Fall.


1) Dinosaurs in amber
The Fall begins with a diary entry written by Ephraim Goodweather. The entry is a brief recapitulation of the events that passed between the end of The Strain and the beginning of The Fall. Ephraim ends his diary entry on a philosophical note.

The dinosaurs left behind almost no trace of themselves. A few bones preserved in amber, the contents of their stomachs, their waste. I only hope that we may leave behind something more than they did. (p. 3)

There are several problems with this statement. Yes, it is true that the dinosaurs have left few traces of themselves, some of them found in amber. However, the dinosaur remains found in amber are not bones, but microscopic traces of feathers. So far, dinosaur bones have exclusively been found as fossils. Regarding stomach contents and waste, these too have only been found as fossils, not preserved in amber. Moreover, admittedly few in number, there are more dinosaur bones that have been discovered than stomach contents and waste.

2) Occido Lumen
The McGuffin of the story in The Fall is an ancient book called Occido Lumen. This book contains the secrets to the destruction of The Master. The book is first introduced when Abraham Setrakian reads its entry in the Sotheby’s auction catalog.

Occido Lumen (1667)—A compleat [sic] account of the first rise of the Strigoi and full confutation of all arguments produced against their existence, translated by the late Rabbi Avigdor Levy. Private collection. Illuminated manuscript, original binding. In view upon appointment. Estimated $15–$25M (p. 14)

What this entry tells us is that the Occido Lumen is an illustrated manuscript from 1667. An illustrated manuscript is a book with pages made from parchment and bound by wooden boards. Illuminated manuscripts were mostly produced during the Middle Ages. In other words, an illuminated manuscript from 1667 is a very late example of this kind of book.

Add. 27210, f. 2
Haggadah title page (Additional 27210 f. 2, British British Library, Catalogue of Illuminated Manuscripts).

So far the description of Occido Lumen is straightforward and in line with what could be referred to as alternate history. The big problem occurs on pages 248 and 249 of The Fall.

Let’s first take a look at page 248. Here, Setrakian and Fet have been given access to Occido Lumen at Sotheby’s. The following description of the book is provided,

The old book rested on an ornate viewing stand of white oak. It was 12 x 8 x 1.8 inches, 489 folios, handwritten in parchment [sic], with twenty illuminated pages, bound in leather and faced with pure-silver plates on the front and rear covers and the spine. The pages themselves were also edged in silver. (p. 248)

From this detailed and vivid description we understand that Occido Lumen is an impressive illuminated manuscript, handwritten on parchment.

011SLO000001975U00013000 F60101-75a
Left image: Man with Dragon (Sloane 1975, f. 13, British Library, Catalogue of Illuminated Manuscripts).
Right image: Manticore (Royal 12 C XIXm f. 29v, British Library, Catalogue of Illuminated Manuscripts).

On page 249, Setrakian and Fet leave Sotheby’s. The vampire hunter proceeds to explain to the exterminator what he found when examining the book.

Setrakian said, “The pages are watermarked. Only a trained eye can see it. Mine can.”

“Watermarked? You mean, like currency?”

Setrakian nodded. “All the pages in the book. It was a common practice in some grimoires and alchemical treatises. [—] There is text printed on the pages, but a second layer underneath. Watermarked directly into the paper at the time of its pressing. That is the real knowledge.” (p. 249)

Above it was stated that Occido Lumen is an illuminated manuscript handwritten on parchment. Here, Setrakian is talking about the book consisting of printed paper pages. What is going on?

I believe that the confusion stems from the fact that the word “parchment” can mean two things. The most common meaning of the word is prepared animal hides used for writing before the introduction of printing. But there is a second meaning of the word, namely a crude type of paper. The mistake that seems to have been made here is that the word “parchment” is used referring to a type of paper while the Occido Lumen itself is called an illuminated manuscript. An illuminated manuscript is a medieval literary and visual art form that is produced exclusively on parchment made from animal hides. Still, this doesn’t explain why the authors seemingly can’t decide whether the book is handwritten or printed.

In addition to the issues raised here, The Fall contains several instances of inconsistencies, repetitions, and cliched dialogue. When I read the book, I kept asking myself if the editor and fact-checker went for a liquid lunch and then forgot to finish the job.

In the words of my friend, the Australian, I shall return.

Guillermo del Toro and Chuck Hogan, The Fall (Harper Fiction, 2011)
Sid Perkins, “Dinofuzz found in Canadian Amber,” Science.
Brian Switek, “Stomach Contents Preserve Sinocalliopteryx Snacks,” Smithsonian Magazine.
Christina Reed, “A Dinosaur’s Wasted Legacy,” Geotimes. Illuminated manuscripts Western painting Parchment



Guillermo del Toro’s The Strain and the Importance of Research


Although novels are fiction, research is an important part in the process of making the story of the novel both probable and plausible. The Strain by Guillermo del Toro and Chuck Hogan is an example of how authors can simultaneously succeed and fail when researching a novel.

Let me explain.

81svWyDFCeLThe Strain is the first part of a trilogy about how a vampire virus spreads among humans in North America and brings an end to the world as we know it. The main characters are Ephraim Goodweather, MD and CDC specialist, his colleague Nora Martinez and vampire hunter Abraham Setrakian.

The novel begins with a Boeing 777, which only minutes after landing at JFK Airport in New York becomes stranded on the taxiway, all its systems are shut down and everyone aboard are seemingly dead. In the cargo hold, a mysterious coffin filled with soil is discovered.

For a story such as The Strain to be plausible, the implausible elements—vampires taking over the world—need to be grounded in reality. This is achieved by del Toro and Hogan through extensive research. The set-up of the story—the Boeing 777 landing at JFK and the dead passengers being examined by Ephraim and his team, followed by the autopsy procedures of the Chief Medical Examiners Office in New York—is told in such detail that the text sometimes resembles a technical manual more than it does a novel. For example, for the JFK rescue crew to enter the aircraft, they need to cut a hole in the fuselage. This procedure is described as follows:

All commercial aircraft were constructed with certain “chop-out” areas. The triple seven’s chop out was in the rear fuselage, beneath the tail, between the aft cargo doors on the right side. The LR in Boeing 777-200LR stood for long range, and as a C-market model with a top range exceeding 9,000 nautical miles (nearly 11,000 U.S.) and a fuel capacity of up to 200,000 liters (more than 50,000 gallons) the aircraft had, in addition to the traditional fuel tanks inside the wing bodies, three auxiliary tanks in the rear cargo hold—thus the need for a safe chop-out area. (p. 25)

The tool needed to cut through the chop-out area of the fuselage is described in the  paragraph immediately following:

The maintenance crew was using an Arcair slice pack, an exothermic torch favored for disaster work not only because it was highly portable, but because it was oxygen powered, using no hazardous secondary gases such as acetylene. (p. 25)

The detailed descriptions of tools and procedures continue when the bodies are examined on site and when they are undergoing postmortems. The reader is provided with information on what victims of carbon-monoxide poisoning look like (p. 45), the procedures of so-called “canoeing” during autopsy (p.125) and the treatment of human brains in formaline (p. 125–126). At times, the authors even stop the action to provide an explanation:

Eph searched around wildly for anything that would help him keep this guy away from him, finding only a trephine in a charger on a shelf. A trephine is a surgical instrument with a spinning cylindrical blade generally used for cutting open the human skull during autopsy. The helicopter-type blade whirred to life, and Redfern advanced […].” (p.174)

In summation, del Toro and Hogan seem to have written a well-researched novel in which to place their vampire tale.

Or have they?

Let’s take a look at three instances where in-depth research seems to have been done, but in fact either has been done poorly or not at all.

1) How to remove facial makeup
After reading the detailed accounts provided by the writers, it comes as a surprise when one of the characters, a rock star named Gabriel Bolivar, sits down in his bathroom to remove his makeup and the following description of the procedure is provided:

Bolivar staggered off the bed and back into his bathroom and his makeup case. He sat down on the leather stool and went through his nightly ministrations. The makeup came off—he knew this because he saw it on the tissues—and yet his flesh looked much the same in the mirror. (p. 149)

If the authors had been consistent in their description of procedures, a detailed account of Bolivar’s “nightly ministrations” would have been provided. I am sure a cosmetologist would have loved to have answered any of their questions.

2) A occultation is still an eclipse
Shortly after the Boeing 777 lands at JFK a solar eclipse occurs. This is a total eclipse that lasts several minutes and is crucial to the development of the plot. The authors provide the following explanation (emphasis added by del Toro and Hogan):

The term solar eclipse is in fact a misnomer. An eclipse occurs when one object passes into a shadow cast by another. In a solar eclipse, the moon does not pass into the sun’s shadow, but instead passes between the sun and the earth, obscuring the sun—causing the shadow. The proper term is “occultation.” The moon occults the sun, casting a small shadow onto the surface of the earth. It is not a solar eclipse, but in fact an eclipse of the earth. (p. 77)

Is this true that we all have been calling a fascinating astronomical phenomenon by the wrong name? The answer to that question is both yes and no. defines an eclipse as a “complete or partial obscuring of a celestial body by another. An eclipse occurs when three celestial objects become aligned.” The encyclopedic entry goes on to explain that there are many different types of eclipses, of which occultation is one. Therefore, “solar eclipse” is not a misnomer and “occultation” is not the only proper term. An occultation is a kind of eclipse. However, when writing a horror story it makes for a good set-up if a word containing the root “occult” can be used as a foreshadowing of what is to come.

3) What did the Romans ever do for the Poles? Absolutely nothing.
Abraham Setrakian is a Holocaust survivor who has dedicated his life to hunting the vampire that arrives in New York on the ill-fated Boeing 777. He first encountered the creature at Treblinka when it came to feed off weakened concentrations camp prisoners. Determined to stop the creature, Setrakian starts asking around among the other prisoners.

In the months since the Sardu-Thing’s first visit, Setrakian—obsessed with the notion of defeating such evil—learned as much as he could from other local prisoners about an ancient Roman crypt located somewhere in the outlying forest. There, he was now certain, the Thing had made its lair […]. (p. 177)

During the Treblinka uprising in 1943, Setrakian is one of the prisoners who manages to escape and avoid capture. He immediately sets out to locate the creature’s lair and succeeds.

He had heard of Roman ruins through camp hearsay from native Poles. It took him almost a week of roaming, until one late afternoon, in the dying light of dusk, he found himself at the mossy steps at the top of an ancient rubble. Most of what remained was underground, with only a few overgrown stones visible from the outside. A large pillar stood at the mound of stones. [—] It was also impossible to stand there at the dark mouth of these catacombs and not shudder. (p. 287)

There are several issues that need to be discussed concerning the creature’s lair.

One problem is that del Toro and Hogan can’t seem to decide whether the lair is a “crypt” or a “catacomb.” A crypt is a “vault or subterranean chamber, usually under a church floor.” There is no indication in the text that a church had stood at the site of the lair.  A catacomb, on the other hand, is an underground cemetery and the term is used exclusively for such cemeteries in and around the city of Rome.

But the terms used to described the lair are not the main problem. The main problem is the fact that the lair is described as Roman. Why is this a problem? It is a problem because the Roman Empire never included what is today Poland and the location of the Treblinka concentration camp. The sheer fact that Roman ruins are found in the Polish forest is historically inaccurate.

At its height the Roman Empire reached as far south as North Africa, as far east as present-day Turkey, Syria, Jordan and Israel, as far west as Spain and as far north as England. In the northeast, the Roman Empire reached to the rivers of the Rhine and the Danube. The Rhine runs through cities such as Strasbourg on the German-French border and Basel in northern Switzerland. The Danube runs through Vienna in Austria, Budapest in Hungary and Belgrade in Serbia.

Roman_Empire_mapMap of the Roman Empire from 510 B.C.E to the fall of Constantinople in 1453.

Why del Toro and Hogan decided to make the lair of the creature explicitly Roman, I can’t understand. I am currently reading part two of the trilogy and so far there has been no mentioning of why the lair is of Roman origin, indicating that this particular piece of information is of no consequence to the development of the story. Moreover, the result of this decision is that I, the reader, begin to question everything else they throughout the novel have claimed to be established facts.

On the whole, The Strain is an entertaining read. It’s a fast-paced attention-grabbing adventure that brings back horror to vampire lore, written by two authors who take a keen interest in technology and medical science. However, if you want to come across as a credible storyteller, you can’t research only the things that interest you and ignore those that don’t.

In the words of my friend, the Australian, I shall return.

Guillermo del Toro and Chuck Hogan The Strain (Harper, New York, 2011) Eclipse Crypt Catacomb Limes
United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Treblinka Death Camp Revolt

Thank you to Ida Östenberg, scholar and researcher of Classical Studies, Department of Historical Studies, University of Gothenburg.
The .gif map of the Roman Empire has been downloaded from Wikimedia Commons.
The book cover of The Strain has been downloaded from